I guess it’s a difficult task to compare CPU solely on their specs. The architecture varies greatly, I think direct spec comparison become mostly irrelevant with introduction of Pentium 4 CPUs. Higher frequency P4 CPUs were bested by previous generation more slow CPUs.
Some of the new CPU are optimized for different tasks, which also complicates comparison even further. For example Intel Atom CPUs are optimized for low power consumption, while performance is somewhat secondary spec.
A practical way of comparing the CPU’s (for a general overview) is to use CPU Benchmark, which is an online site that gathers statistics and relative performance of LOTS of CPU’s from lots of places.
You can also compare the CPU’s on Intel’s Ark website. This won’t show you the performance, but it will show you the difference. I did this for fun [its the kind of thing I like to keep abreast of], and can advise that in addition to the the performance boost, the i7-3630QM uses about half the power, supports twice the memory, has built in graphics and “anti-theft” technology (there are other things as well).
In real terms though, the i7-780 was a much higher end CPU for its time than the S7-4630QM appears to be – I’d imagine that something like the i7-3770 would perform much faster (but uses a different socket)
A popular metric for measuring cpu perfomance is the bogomip. Though not really indicative, especially nowadays since as Petr mentionned, cpu’s have different optimisations for different tasks.
I suggest you boot with a linux live cd so both machines have the exact same load. From there you have a few options to rate you cpu’s bogomip rating.
Of course, you may of already stumbled on this site that rates just about all cpu’s on the market.
Hope that helps, good-luck.