I noticed a workaround mentioned in the Chrome forum.
you can temporarily re-enable the Apple-provided Java SE 6 applet plug-in and Web Start functionality which supposedly can let you re-use java 6 again in chrome.
Found via Chrome forum thread “Where can i download Chrome 64-bit?“
If your situation is that you upgraded to 10.8.2 but already had a functioning javaws that no longer launches when needed, you can get away with just step 5 of the instructions pointed to by Jesper Rønn-Jensen:
sudo ln -sf /System/Library/Frameworks/JavaVM.framework/Commands/javaws /usr/bin/javaws